It refers to voice calls transported as IP pockets over a public or private network. In other words it means sending voice information digitally in discrete pockets rather than in the traditional circuit-specific protocols of public switched telephone network (PSTN). VoIP can send voice, fax and other information in the form of IP pockets over the internet. This technology is also called as IP technology.


Terminals: It is used to communicate via a network and includes as IP phone and a soft phone. The IP phone is connected to LAN and the soft phone enables a desktop to function as telephone.

Routers: It gives access to PSTN networks for circuit switched calls and provides closed user group communication via land line.

Gateways: It connects the IP network to the traditional PSTN SYSTEMS.

Call manager: It is a PC based call processing software that takes care of the call routing and decision making.

Voice massaging: It provides the recording of voice messages when the recipient is unavailable.

Application of VoIP

It is an ideal system for organisations to cut their expenditure as the long distance call across the country and within the countries at low cost. Other applications include office-to- office communication, off net calling, creation of promise extention and e-commerce.

Problems associated

  • PSTN prices have come down reducing the cost advantage of VoIP.
  • Cost competitiveness is determined by technology as well as by those who get lower termination.
  • This only favours the existing carriers with big traffic volumes.


In general terms, SCTP is a reliable transport operating on top of potentially unreliable connectionless pocket service such as IP. It is one of the promising fields of mobility management in mobile technology, it can be used as transport protocol for applications where monitoring and detection of loss of sessions is required. SCTP offers recognized error free non- duplicated transfer of messages. Check sums and sequence number employed in this technology allows detection of data loss, data corruption and duplication of datas. In order to correct the loss or corruption of datas, a selective transmission mechanism is applied.

SCTP connections are established after a4-way hand shake between 2 SCTP end points, usually a client and server. The server after receiving the client’s association set up request returns an acknowledgement of the setup request. The setup request contains a data structure called ‘cookee’ which is protected by a secure message authentication code. SCTP while acknowledging this request does not change state. Only when this cookee is returned by the client unchanged, the server allocates resources and establishes new association.


Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) is a third generation radio technology. This technology is brought with minor additions and improvements over the existing Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and General Pocket Radio Services (GPRS) and has been standardized by the International Telecom Union (ITU).

EDGE technology would enable the GSM networks to handle services for the third generation mobile telephony. This technology works on Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), logic channels and 200 kilo Hertz carrier bandwidth as GSM networks allowing existing cell plans to remain intact.

Advantages of this technology

  • It is the easiest way for operators to get high speed data services as an operator can handle at least three times more subscriber than those handled by the GPRS system.
  • It has the capacity to add extra capacity to voice and will /also enable the exchange of thrice the data per subscriber than earlier modes of data exchange.
  • The system can work on the existing GSM infrastructure and therefore additional infrastructure is not required. The same license would also work for EDGE technology. It will minimize business risk and provides better avenues of profit.
  • Quality services like Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS), file transfer and the downloads can be at much faster rates.


It seems to be something like a plan but in reality ERP has nothing to do with planning. It is a software which attempts to integrate all departments and functions across a company onto single computer system that can serve all those department’s particular needs.

Earlier the old stand alone computer systems required the installation of separate systems which were optimized for a particular work. Thus different departments required different computer systems.

ERP combines all these together into a single, integrated software programme that runs off a single database so that the various departments can more easily share information and communicate with each other. Thus the problem of having a number of computer systems has been eliminated. It can have a tremendous benefit if for the companies employing finance, human resource, manufacturing, warehousing and marketing who with a single software programme divided into software modules can carry out all the functions with a single computer systems.

Advantages of ERP

Financial information is integrated which will provide a better picture of the overall financial health of the company.

ERP systems can quicken the delivery of goods immediately after the orders are placed by the customers to the customer service representative as the processing can start simultaneously in the concerned departments.

It helps to standardize and speed up the manufacturing process.

ERP helps the manufacturing process flow more smoothly and it improves the visibility of the order fulfillment process inside the company.

In companies having multiple business units, the HR may not have a unified simple method for tracking employees time and communicating with them about benefits and services would become more difficult. ERP will solve all these problems.


  • It is a complex system and is not intended for public consumptions.
  • It works on the presumption that only those who are trained and comfortable in software application can be employees.
  • ERP applications are big and complex and require maintenance.

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