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India today is faced with an extensive defence and security parameter, 14,103 kilometres of land borders, including 7,000 kilometres of border with countries with which major territorial disputes still persist (Pakistan and China), a coastline of 7,600 kilometres and 2.5 million square kilometres of Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) to protect. Besides this, there are over 500 islands plus offshore hydrocarbon installations. The land defence perimeter spans some of world’s most difficult terrain, the Himalayas in the North, thick mountain jungles in the East and North-East and the Ran swamps of the West.

International relations in the contemporary world are experiencing divergent pulls and pressures depending on the global or regional magnitude of the players’ aspirations. The United States has imperatives aimed at retaining its global pre-eminence in the political, economic and military spheres. Pakistan’s imperatives are limited to regional goals aimed at acquisition of Kashmir, attaining an equitable power balance vis-a-vis India and, becoming the predominant party in the Islamic configuration in the Middle East. Both global and regional issues play a major role in the development of China’s foreign policy. China’s internal anxieties in Sinkiang and Tibet demand a secure flank along its South Western extremities while it is occupied by its aspirations to great power status in global politics.

Indian policy-makers must accept these complexities and their convergence on India’s security environment. Each of these states have their own compulsions in the Kashmir issue and nuclear proliferation in South Asia.


The government has cut funding on science and technology by 50 per cent since 1988, but atomic energy’s budget has taken a disproportionate hit, falling more than 70 percent in constant dollars. As a result, it has had to cut its support to the Nuclear Power Corporation from 50 to 33 percent of the latter’s total revenues. Although defence and space funding have been revived since 1992, atomic energy’s budget-and its clout-remains in decline.

Even the budget falls of the Atomic Energy Department the fraction devoted to research and development is rising to the equivalent of just over $100 million a year. More than half of this amount goes to the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, which is responsible for military projects, among other things.

The Indian nuclear establishment in the future well be devoted to experimental research, decommissioning, and clean-up on the civil side, and stewardship of the Nuclear options on the military side.

The government’s decision last year to double the budget for military research and development meant more bad news for the atomic energy department, signalling clearly that the number one priority for Indian science was going to be conventional weapons. If the Defence Ministry’s “Plan 2005” goes forward as promised, India will be spending more than $1 billion a year by the end of the decade to develop indigenous tactical missiles, a fighter aircraft etc.


Application of science and technology plays a vital role in determining the defence capabilities of a country which is critical in keeping the morale of the armed forces. India’s defence policy aims at promoting and sustaining durable peace in the subcontinent and equipping the defence forces adequately to safeguard aggression. Its long term military, strategic aims have always been clear and well defined, namely:

  • Keeping the war machine, i.e., armed forces, well trained and ready to wage war at short notice.
  • Have a wide industrial base and infrastructure to support long-term insurgency or a war when it is thrust upon us.
  • Avoidance of conflict by acquisition of deterrents like nuclear technology and nuclear warhead delivery systems (missiles).


Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) was formed in 1958 by amalgamating Defence Science Organisation and some of the technical development establishments. A separate department of Defence Research and Development was formed in 1980 which now administers DRDO and its 50 laboratories and establishments. The Department of Defence Research and Development formulates and executes programmes of scientific research, design and development in the fields of relevance to national security leading to the induction of new weapons, platforms and other equipments required by the Armed Forces. It also functions as the nodal agency for the execution of major development programmes of relevance to Defence through integration of research, development, testing and production facilities with the national scientific institutions, public sector undertakings and other agencies. It functions under the control of Scientific Adviser to Raksha Mantri who is also Secretary, Defence Research and Development.



A CTBT is a ban on nuclear explosion tests of any yield exceeding zero; it is not a Treaty by which nations agree to give up their nuclear weapons, or even to reduce their numbers.

The relevant pro-scriptions are contained in the CTBT Article I: BASIC OBLIGATIONS: Each State Party undertakes not to carry out any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion, and to prohibit and prevent any such nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control. Article 2: Each State Party undertakes, furthermore, to refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion.

The negotiating record makes clear that the CTBT permits no yield at all from fission explosions- not one kiloton; not one ton; not one kilogram; not one milligram of fission yield. “Peaceful nuclear explosions” (PNEs) are also banned, although they may be considered in a Review Conference(2) normally to be held 10 years after entry into force.

India’s stand on CTBT

All five nuclear weapons states (NWS) signed the Treaty 24 September 1996 at the United Nations, as did many other states. India, however, has stated that it will not sign a CTBT, even if the “entry into force” (EIF) clause is changed so that the CTBT can take effect without India’s participation.(3) Among the reasons for the enormous popularity of the CTBT (158 of 161 States voted in the General Assembly 9 September 1996 to open the CTBT for signature, with only India, Bhutan, and North Korea voting against) is that every State favoring the CTBT seems to value the impediment it places against the spread of nuclear weapons to states beyond the 5 NWS, and the barrier to the development of advanced types of nuclear weapons among the 5 NWS.

The nuclear weapons establishments in each of the NWS supports the value of nuclear explosion tests of some type or schedule, but the leadership of each State found the State’s security to be improved by a CTBT. It is contradictory that some of the sates will be able to do nuclear exlosion tests, and others can’t. Hence they have decided to deny themselves the freedom to test.


Prithvi is a Sanskrit/Hindi word meaning Earth, given that it is a surface-to-surface missile. The Prithvi is among the most modern short-ranged battlefield missiles in the world. It has the highest warhead-weight to overall-weight of any missile in its class, thanks to its unique aerodynamic design with delta wings located mid-body that allow it to glide during flight.

India launched the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) in 1983. Prithvi was the first missile developed as part of IGMDP. Agni, Prithvi, Trishul, Akash, Nag and Astra also form part of the IGMDP, which is being managed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).

The Prithvi missile comes in four variants.

  • Prithvi-I is a battlefield support system for the army (range 150 km, 1000 kg payload). It is a single stage, dual engine, liquid fuel, road-mobile, short-range surface-to- surface missile.
  • Prithvi-II is dedicated to the Indian Air Force (range 250 km, 500 – 750 kg payload). It is a single stage, dual engine, liquid fuel, road-mobile, short-range surface-to-surface missile. DRDO has decided to increase the payload capability of the Prithvi-II variant to 1000 kg.
  • Prithvi-III is a solid fuelled version with a 350 km range and a 1000 kg payload. It is a two stage, solid fuel, road-mobile, short-range, surface-to-surface missile. Sagarika and Prithvi-III are two different acronyms for the same missile. A related programme, known as Project K-15, is in development and will enable the missile to be launched from a submerged submarine.
  • Dhanush (in Sanskrit/Hindi means Bow) is a system consisting of a stabilization platform (Bow) and the Missile (Arrow).

IAF version of Prithvi missile launched

The Prithvi missile, meant for the Indian Air Force ; (IAF), was successfully test-fired from the Interim- Test-Range at Chandipur in Orissa on March 19, 2004. A product of the Defence Research and Development; Organisation (DRDO), the surface-to-surface missile is called P-l I. P-11 is 8.56 metres tall and has a diameter of one metre. The five-tonne, single-stage missile can carry a payload of 500 kg over a distance of 250 km and is fuelled by liquid propellants, xylidine and red-fumic nitric acid.

Dhanush testfired successfully

Dhanush, the naval version of the Prithvi series of missiles was successfully testfired from the Interim Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur in Orissa’s Balasore district on November 7. 2004. The indigenous, short- range ballistic missile (SRBM) has the capability to carry both conventional as well as nuclearwarheadsup to 500 kg. This was the third trial of Dhanush. The first was aborted on April 11, 2000 as a technical snag was detected in the software system during its blast-off phase while the second trial was conducted successfully on September 21, 2001.

Although Prithvi is capable of carrying nuclear/strategic warheads, it is dedicated for battlefield use making use of conventional payloads such as pre-fragmented explosives, bomblets, incendiary, cluster munitions, sub-munitions, fuel- air and high explosives. The Prithvi was India’s sole ballistic missile for many years before induction of the Agni-I/II intermediate range missiles.

The Prithvi-I is 8.56 meters long and has a diameter of 1.1 meters, while Prithvi-II is 9 meters long but has the same diameter to the Prithvi-I. The rocket motor is approximately 6 meters long, and the warhead cone is about 2.5 meters long.

The single stage missile uses liquid fuel. The hypergolic liquid fuel employs inhibited red fuming nitric acid as an oxidizer a50:50combination of xy lidiene and triethlyamine as fuel.

The missile’s volatile liquid fuel must be loaded immediately prior to launch, imposing certain delay before it is ready for launch. Once loaded, such missiles can stay in ready state for few months. However, they can be loaded/ unloaded only limited number of times. Fuel loading and draining is a very sensitive process. Missile crews who operate them undergo intense training in three general phases.

The Prithvi-III is a solid fuelled missile and its motor diameter is reportedly between 0.75 to 1.0 meters, with a length of 6 meters. It presumably uses a high energy solid propellant (HTPB/AP/A1) that allows greater range (350 to 600 km) and payload (500 to 1000 kg) capability.

The Prithvi can execute up to five waypoints en route to the target, thus maximizing the element of surprise. This makes it difficult for ABM defenses to intercept the missile. The missile is coated with radar-absorbing paint to reduce its radar signature during flight, thus further reducing the probability of detection and interception.


Dhanush (meaning “Bow” in Sanskrit) is a nuclear-capable ballistic missile with a range of 350 km. It is a single-stage ship-based missile. It has a pay-load capacity of 500 kg and is capable of carrying both conventional and nuclear warheads. It can hit both sea and shore-based targets. The missile, which has liquid propellant, is the naval version of India’s indigenously developed surface-to-surface ‘Prithvi’ missile system. Dhanush is developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).


Dhanush Missile was successfully test fired from the Indian Naval Ship “INS SUVARNA” off the coast of Orissa on 11th March 2011.


The Agni missile is a family of medium to intercontinental range ballistic missiles developed under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. The Agni missile family comprises the following variants:

  1. Agni-I short range ballistic missile with 700 km range
  2. Agni-II medium range ballistic missile with 2,000 km range
  3. Agni-II Advanced with 2,750- 3,000 km range
  4. Agni-III intermediate range ballistic missile with 3,000 – 5,500 km range
  5. Agni-V intercontinental ballistic missile with 5000 – 6000 km rang-a, currently under development.

Agni missiles play a central role as part of India’s credible minimum deterrence. The Agni missiles consist of one (short range) or two stages (intermediate range). These are rail and road mobile and powered by solid propellants. Agni missiles are the central part of the land-based nuclear ‘second strike capability and are a crucial credible nuclear deterrence.

Agni III test fired recently had a Circular Error Probable (CEP) in the range of 40 m, which makes it the most accurate strategic ballistic missile of its range class in the world. This is of special significance because a highly accurate ballistic missile increases the “kill efficiency” of the weapon; it allows Indian weapons designers to use smaller yield nuclear warheads (200 kiloton thermonuclear or boosted fission) while increase the lethality of the strike. This permits India to deploy a much larger nuclear force using less fissile material.


Agni-II is a surface-to-surface, nuclear-capable medium range ballistic missile (MRBM). It is an intermediate-range, rail/road-mobile missile. The two-stage solid-propelled Agni-II has two solid fuel stages; and a Post Boost Vehicle (PBV) integrated into the missile’s Re-entry Vehicle (RV). The Agni’s manoeuvring RV is made of a carbon-carbon composite material that is light and able to sustain high thermal stresses of re-entry, in a variety of trajectories. The Agni-II’s main strength is its relatively high accuracy, especially at close range, due to its combination of an INS/GPS guidance module and dual-frequency radar correlation.

The missile, with a strike range of 2,000 km, has a length of 20 m, diameter of 1 m and weighs around 17 tons, and it is equipped with a special navigation system to achieve high degree of accuracy. It can carry a one-tonne nuclear warhead. It has been developed by Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL) along with other Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) laboratories. The Agni II missile is part of India’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme. The Agni II version of the Agni series of missiles was first test fired in 1999 and was inducted into the armed forces in 2004.


Agni-II was launched from the Wheeler Island on the Orissa coast on 30th September 2011. The Strategic Forces Command (SFC) of the armed forces, which handles nuclear-weapons delivery systems, conducted the launch. This was the third successful missile launch in seven days for the DRDO. The Agni-II triumph caps the successful missions of Shourya and Prithvi-II from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur, Orissa, on September 24 and 26.


Agni-IV is a nuclear-capable, two-stage strategic missile which is powered by solid fuel. The surface-to-surface, intermediate range ballistic missile can carry both conventional and nuclear warhead and has a range of 3,500 km. It weighs 17 tones and is 20 m long, can carry a 1 tone of payload. It can be fired from a road mobile launcher. It was earlier called “Agni-II Prime”. The first flight of Agni-II Prime in December 2010 was a failure.


A quantum leap in indigenous technology, Agni-IV incorporates a composite rocket motor casing, a highly accurate guidance and navigation system, modern and compact avionics, digital control system and many contemporary and advanced technologies making it comparable to the best in the world. The missile has a payload with re-entry heat shield. The composite rocket motor technology, which has been used for the first time, has also given excellent performance. The missile system is equipped with modern and compact avionics with redundancy to provide high level of reliability. The indigenous ring laser gyros-based high-accuracy INS (Rins) and micro navigation system (Mings) complementing each other in redundant mode, have been successfully flown in guidance mode for the first time.

IN NEWS:           

Agni-IV missile was launched from a mobile launcher on 15th November 2011, from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Wheeler Island off the Odisha coast.


The Shaurya missile is a nuclear-capable canister launched hypersonic surface-to-surface tactical missile with a range of 700 km to 1900 km, which was developed by the DRDO. The Shaurya missile provides India with a significant nuclear second strike capability in the short range-intermediate range category. It uses an advanced navigation and guidance system, is highly manoeuvrable and can reach speed upto Mach 6 in its flight path.

The unique feature of Shaurya is that it has a lower trajectory than conventional ballistic missile. It is therefore referred to as a quasi-ballistic missile. The Shaurya achieves hypersonic speeds very soon after launch, and then cruises to its target at an altitude of 50 km, following a quasi- ballistic path. This helps the missile to evade anti-ballistic missile and hit the target with precision.

Shaurya is stored and launched from a gas cannister which makes it much easier to store for long periods without maintenance as well as to handle and transport. Shaurya missiles can remain hidden or camouflaged in underground silos from enemy surveillance or satellites till they are fired from the special storage-cum-launch canisters.


BrahMos is a Supersonic Cruise Missile that can be launched from submarine, ship, aircraft and land based Mobile Autonomous Launchers (MAL). The missile is launched from a Transport-Launch Canister (TLC), which also acts as storage and transportation container.

BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited was established in India as a Joint Venture through an Inter-Governmental Agreement between India and Russia signed in February 1998. The acronym BrahMos is perceived as the confluence of two great nations represented by two great rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moscow of Russia.

Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) from India and the Federal State Unitary Enterprise NPO Mashinostroyenia (NPOM) from Russia are the joint venture partners of the Company.

The first flight-test of the BrahMos missile was conducted on 12 June 2001 at the Interim Test Range in Orissa. The missile was launched in vertical mode, where the missile was launched upward from the canister and directed towards the target point. This launch was the first in a series of flight-tests planned to demonstrate the capabilities of the system to the potential customers.

Primarily BrahMos is an anti-ship missile. It has the capability to engage land based targets also. The missile can be launched either in vertical or inclined position and will cover 360 degrees.

The BrahMos missile has identical configuration for land, sea and sub sea platforms. The aiMaunched version has a smaller booster and additional tail fins for stability during launch. It can also be launched from a mobile launch complex. The mobile launch complex consists of an indigenously built multi-axle truck called TATRA, which has a cross-country capability. In other words, TATRA is the base around which the mobile complex has been built and TATRA can carry the BrahMos to different types of terrain. It has its own fire- control system for the missile.


  • High supersonic velocity
  • Long flight range
  • Varieties of flight trajectories
  • “Fire & Forget” principle
  • Universal for multiple platforms
  • Low Radar Signature
  • Simplicity of technical operations
  • High lethal power
  • Higher effectiveness


  • Long flight range with supersonic speed all through the flight
  • Shorter flight times leading to lower target dispersion and quicker engagement
  • Higher destructive capability aided by the large kinetic energy of impact
  • Higher effectiveness against ship defences
  • Canister for transportation, storage and launch

It is the first and only supersonic cruise missile that uses liquid ram jet technology. It cruises in the atmosphere at speeds faster than sound. It can travel at Mach 2.8 to 3 (2.8 to three times the speed of sound) and can be launched from ground including silos and ships, submarines and aircraft. Weighing about three tonnes, the missile is eight metres long and carries a conventional warhead weighing about 200 kg. It cannot carry nuclear warheads. Its fuel is aviation kerosene.

A two-stage vehicle, its propulsion consists of a solid propellant booster and a liquid propellant ramjet system. It is called liquid ramjet system because the missile collects the air (oxidiser) available in the atmosphere, rams the air on the liquid propellant, and the propellants burn in the combustion chamber. It has a range of 290 kms.

India developing aerial version of BrahMos missile

India hopes to develop a version of the BrahMos supersonic cruise missile capable of being launched from aircraft in the next two years, according to a leading defence scientist on October 11, 2004. After the successful testing of the naval version of the missile that was jointly designed and developed by India and Russia, the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is now evaluating the BrahMos’s capability for targeting land-based targets. BrahMos is primarily an anti-ship missile. However, it can be reconfigured to engage land-based targets.

BrahMos-ll test-fired successfully

BrahMos II, the land-to-land version of the supersonic cruise missile, jointly developed by India and Russia, was test-fired for the first time in the Army configuration in a desert range in Rajasthan on December 21,2004. This was the ninth flight of BrahMos and all of them have been successful. Three of the earlier flights were launched from a naval ship towards targets in the sea, including two decommissioned vessels. Three were from a mobile launcher on land at the Integrated-Test-Range at Chandipur-on-sea, Orissa, towards the sea. The remaining two was also launched from land towards the sea. But this was the first time that BrahMos was launched from land towards a target on land. Hence it is called BrahMos II land-to-land version in the Army configuration.


Nirbhay (“Dauntless/Fearless” in Sanskrit) is a long range, subsonic cruise missile being developed by India. The missile will have a range of 1,000 km and will arm three services, the Indian Army, Indian Navy and the Indian Air Force. The Nirbhay will be able to be launched from multiple platforms on land, sea and air. The missile is being developed by the Advanced Systems Laboratory, a division of DRDO and after finalizing the design, the technology required for the missile is being developed. The first test flight of the missile is expected in the second half of year 2012. Nirbhay will be a terrain hugging, stealthy missile capable of delivering 24 different types of warheads depending on mission requirements and will use an inertial navigation system for guidance. Nirbhay will supplement Brahmos as it would enable delivery of warheads farther than the 300 km range of Brahmos.


Akash is a medium range multiple-target surface-to-air missile system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) as part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program, that is currently in active service with the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force. The missile system can track and attack several targets simultaneously. The missile can travel at speeds upto Mach 2.5, target aircraft up to 30 km away, at altitudes up to 18,000 m. The system provides air defence missile coverage of 2,000 square km. Akash can be fired from both tracked and wheeled platforms. Akash is said to be capable of both conventional and nuclear warheads, with a reported payload of 60 kg. A nuclear warhead could potentially give the missile the capability to destroy both aircraft and warheads from ballistic missiles. It can simultaneously engage several targets and has a maximum interception range of 25 km.

Rajendra, the radar developed by the Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE), a DRDO laboratory situated at Bangalore, forms a part of the Akash system. Rajendra does the surveillance, tracks the target, acquires it and guides the missile towards it.

Well friends, don’t think that the “LRDE” is a typographical error for “ERDE”. To distinguish between “Electrical” and “Electronic”, the latter is abbreviated with the first letter of its Latin root (lektra). As such it becomes important as an individual abbreviation based question in the examination as well.


The Defence Minister Sh. AK Antony handed over the first batch of the Akash missile to the Indian Air Force at a function in Hyderabad on Mar 03, 2012.


Astra is an advanced long range air-to-air missile developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for the Indian Air Force. Based on solid propellant, Astra can carry a conventional warhead of 15 kg. It is one of the smallest missiles developed by the DRDO in terms of size and weight. It is 3.8 m long and has a diameter of 178 mm with an overall launch weight of 160 kg.

The Astra is a BVRAAM (Beyond Visual Range Air-To-Air Missile). A beyond visual range missile has long range and functions autonomously as it carries its own radar. It enables fighter pilots to lock-on and shoot down enemy aircraft from a distance of more than 80 km away. This is the first BVRAAM developed by India. The missile will be able to intercept target aircraft at supersonic speed. The maximum range of Astra is to be 80 km in head-on chase and 20 km in tail chase. The Mark 2 version of Astra will have a maximum range of 150 km and tail chase range of up to 35 km. The missile is being developed to arm the Indian Air Force’s Mirage 2000H, MiG-29, Sea Harrier, Su-30MKI, MiG-21 Bison and HAL Tejas fighter aircraft. The missile has been tested extensively with success.


India on 21″ May 2011 successfully test fired the Astra missile from Chandipur in Orissa.


The MICA (Interception and Aerial Combat Missile) is an anti-air multi-target, all weather, fire- and-forget short and medium-range missile system. It is manufactured by MBDA. It is intended for use both by air platforms as individual missiles as well as ground units and ships, which can be equipped with the rapid fire MICA Vertical Launch System. It is fitted with a Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system.

IN NEWS: The government on 4th January 2012 cleared a proposal to equip the French Mirage ground attack aircraft with 500 air-to-air missiles that would be procured from a western consortium. The €950-million (about Rs. 6,600 crore) deal was cleared by the Cabinet Committee on Security at a meeting here chaired by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.


The latest edition of the biennial exercise, Milan, of the navies of Asia-Pacific region, hosted by the Indian Navy, commenced at Port Blair 1st Feb 2012. Navies of 14 countries, including Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei, Indonesia, Malayasia, Maldives, Myanmar, Mauritius, New Zealand, the Philippines, Seychelles, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Thailand, attended the exercise that ended on February 6th. Milan basically is a biennial conglomeration of Asia-Pacific maritime navies, hosted by the Indian Navy, to foster bonds of ‘friendship across the seas’, boost interoperability and share views on common maritime issues. From four navies in 1995, it has grown to include 14 navies now.


Nag is a 3rd generation fire and forget anti-tank guided missile developed under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and entered service in the Indian Army in 2009. The Nag carries a high explosive armour piercing warhead. The land based vehicle has a maximum range of 4 km and the air launched version has a maximum range of 7 km.

There are three different variants – one that can be launched by land-based vehicle called NAMICA, by helicopters (this version will be known as HELINA- HELIcopter Nag), and a new shoulder launched version is under development. NAMICA (NAg Missile CArrier) is a tank destroyer vehicle that can carry and launch Nag antitank missiles. They can carry 12 missiles with 8 in ready-to-fire mode.


Pinaka MBRL (multiple barrel rocket launcher) is a multiple rocket launcher that is in service with the Indian Army. It is an indigenous artillery system that was designed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and is manufactured by Larsen & Toubro and Tata Group. Pinaka entered service in 1998 and served the Army in the Kargil War, where it was successful in neutralizing enemy positions on the mountain tops. It has since been inducted into the Indian Army in large numbers.

Pinaka MBRL systems are generally deployed in a battery of six Tata trucks that can each carry 12 214 mm rockets. All the 72 rockets in the battery can be fired in 44 seconds to a maximum range of 40 km and neutralize an area of 1 square km. It can fire a second time within 4 minutes.

The Pinaka is in the process of further improvement. Various new guidance systems and fire control radars are being installed to improve the accuracy of the system. The rockets can also be guided by GPS to improve their accuracy. A wraparound microstrip antenna has been developed by DRDO for this system.

Multiple rocket launcher: A multiple rocket launcher (MRL) is a type of rocket artillery system. Like other rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers are less accurate and have a much lower rate of fire than traditional artillery guns. However, they have the capability of simultaneously dropping many hundreds of kilograms of explosive over an area, with devastating effect.


TAL (Torpedo Advanced Light) is an indigenously developed advanced light-weight torpedo. It is an electrically propelled, self- homing Torpedo which can be launched from ships, helicopters and aircraft. It can hunt submarines with a speed of 33 knots with endurance of 6 minutes in shallow and deep waters. The TAL is about 2.75 m long, weighs 220 kg and packs 50 kg of explosives. It is an anti-submarine torpedo and can travel upto a maximum distance of 7 km before taking out an enemy submarine.

The Naval Science and Technological Laboratory (NSTL), Visakhapatnam, which comes under the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), has designed and developed the TAL. Bharat Dynamics Ltd (BDL) is manufacturing these Torpedoes at its Visakhapatnam Unit.

Torpedoes are underwater missiles which are fired from ships, submarines or helicopters against ships and submarines. The NSTL is the laboratory which develops underwater weapons such as torpedos, mines and their associated fire control systems, and decoys.

IN NEWS: The Defence Minister Sh. AK Antony handed over the first batch of the TAL Torpedos to the Indian Navy at a function in Hyderabad on 3rd March 2012.


The submarine-to-surface missile, is a light, miniaturised system, which is about 6.5 m long and weighs 7 tonnes. Powered by solid propellants, it can carry a payload of about 500 kg. It can be launched from different platforms: ground, underwater and mobile launchers.

The missile can carry both nuclear and conventional warheads. It has completed the country’s triad of minimum, credible nuclear deterrence from sea, land and air. The missile has the latest technologies in aerodynamics, control and guidance and navigation.

Sagarika was developed at the DRDO’s missile complex in Hyderabad. The complex consists of the Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL), the Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL) and the Research Centre, Imarat (RCI). While the missile was designed and developed by the DRDL, the ASL provided the motors and propulsion systems. The RCI’s contribution was in avionics, including control and guidance systems and inertial navigation systems.

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